Permit me one final post on Benner’s book. Parts 1 and 2 summarized the variety of ‘selves’ (‘identities’) we navigate through in our process of spiritual awakening. I thought it would be enough to describe those, but Benner’s breakdown of human development in Chs. 3 and 4 was so helpful I wanted to bring it out here.
Benner arranges human development along two axes. The first axis consists of the different lines or dimensions of the developing self (toward fulfillment in the Spirit-centered self). The second axis describes levels of development experienced in each dimension.
In the first diagram below we have illustrated the first axis: dimensions of the developing self. I like these because they’re centered on essential, God-given, existential questions that motivate and drive our development and only rest as answered when they rest in their divine ground. Any other resting place constitutes a false self. These first axis dimensions are examined in Ch. 3 (“Growth and the Lines of Development”).
It’s easy to see how connected these 12 dimensions are and how connected they all are to the first. One might say that each presents a perspective on or an aspect of the developing self (the first in series). And as the varieties of ‘false self’ are confronted (Parts 1 and 2) en route to personal fulfillment in Christ, the existential questions at the heart of all the domains subsequent to the first (e.g., “Who am I?”) express aspects of the fundamental concern for our truest and most fundamental sense of identity. As I’ve suggested before: All our choices are either a search for or an expression of ‘who’ we believe ourselves to be. We are either at rest in our God-given, Spirit-centered self, in which case all we do expresses who we are, or we are not at rest in our truest identity in Christ, in which case all we do is an attempt to secure who we wish to be in response to the driving questions (in the above diagram) that irrepressibly propel us toward a satisfying rest. I love the way the domains are grounded in these God-given questions. They provide a nice self-assessment tool together with the second axis.
The second axis (from Ch. 4, “Transformation and the Levels of Development”) describes the level or depth of awakening in each of the domains that constitute the first axis. This second diagram of Benner’s below provides a way to view these. The diagram presents 5 of the 12 dimensions for a hypothetical person:
Nobody operates at a single level. As the diagram shows, there is bound to be divergence among the domains of development. Benner suggests that at any given point in time our ‘way of being in the world’ is organized around a single, developmental “center of gravity.” For this hypothetical person of diagram 2, that average level would be “2.” Some domains are beyond this and others are behind it. But most cluster around this level, which is a kind of platform upon which this person stands. It organizes our life. It is (Benner referring to Ken Wilber) our “overall level-of-consciousness development.” But because we stand on it, Benner says, we tend not to see it. We must exercise great intentionality to examine it and such examination always causes it to shift under our feet. Benner writes:
But how then does consciousness relate to the various lines of development? How does growth in the various dimensions of self affect his spaciousness? And how does that affect how we experience phenomena? Wilber offers a metaphor for how this works that I find very helpful. He suggests that each of the lines of development is like a path up a mountain, each offering its own unique view. What each allows us to see is related to the existential question that each addresses. Thus, for example, a the path of faith development rises, one sees more clearly how to trust; while climbing the path of moral development, one sees more clearly how best to make choices. Wilber points out, however, that the view on different paths is similar at similar elevations. Higher altitudes on any of these mountain trails represents broader and more inclusive perspectives. The stages or levels of development therefore represent the perspective from a particular elevation: increasing elevations represent increasing openness to apprehending reality on its own terms. This accounts for the fact that for various dimensions of self, descriptions of the higher levels of development all tend to converge. Just as mountain trials to the top of a mountain all converge as one nears the summit, so too do the higher states on all the various lines of development.
…In summary, therefore, we can say that shifts in our center of gravity represent shifts in our consciousness. At a minimum this will always involve a change in two things: our sense of our self (identity) and our view of life and the world (perspective). Movements up the vertical axis correspond to bigger selves and larger perspectives. At the core of both of these is increased awareness.
Benner addresses the question of how transformation relates to movement up the vertical axis of consciousness development. He describes this along a scale of “openness,” “consent,” and “awareness.” By “transformation” upwards he means four things:
1) increased awareness
2) a broader, more inclusive identity
3) a larger framework for making meaning (how we understand and make sense of our self, others, God, and the world)
4) a reorganization of personality that results in a changed way of being in the world
With each expansion of consciousness, we do not simply become aware of new things; we also experience a change in how we organize these new contents of consciousness. This movement of increasing the contents of consciousness (awakening) and reorganization of those contents (transformation) is what we will be examining as we consider the journey of the awakening or unfolding self. In psychological terms, what I am proposing is that human development is primarily organized around this expansion of consciousness and the reorganizations of the ways of understanding the relationship of the self and the non-self that are involved in it. Each shift to a new platform on which we stand and from which we view our selves and the world is associated with changes in how we organize our experience and consequently with changes in our identity.
And a last word to the wise:
The journey…is far from linear. Do not trust any map of the journey that reduces it to a formula or leads you to expect a simple straightforward path. The walk is the same from beginning to end: openness and faith that expresses itself in sufficient stillness and solitude to allow you to be a good host to the Spirit, who is the inner engine of transformation. But the path is far from straight and far from simply one long gentle incline of ascent. It is a path that must take you right through the middle of life as it comes to all of us—with its great losses, loves, suffering, hopes, disappointment, disillusionments, and fulfillments.
There is so much more in Benner’s book I wish to recommend but space won’t let me continue. You won’t regret the purchase.